By @askewone On view today @knowngallery #ASKEW #DIASPORA #KnownGallery #citrusreport
Los Que Llegaron — Chinos
En los últimos años del siglo XIX y la primera década del XX, 30 mil inmigrantes chinos de la clase trabajadora llegaron a México huyendo de la pobreza y de la inestabilidad política, procedentes del sur de China (Cantón) o de Estados Unidos. En nuestro país los chinos fueron contratados por diversas compañías estadounidenses para la construcción de vías férreas y el trabajo en minería y agricultura. Al concluir estos trabajos los estadounidenses empezaron a rechazarlos, hasta que en 1904 se emitió una ley que prohibía su entrada a aquel país, por lo que huyeron a territorio mexicano, principalmente a Baja California. Se estima que el número de jornaleros chinos que había en el valle fluctuaba entre siete y ocho mil. En esa época era tan grande la presencia e influencia de los chinos que a Mexicali se le llamaba “el pequeño Cantón” y el barrio del antiguo centro comercial de la ciudad aún es conocido como “La chinesca”.
Actualmente, en la capital residen unos 9 mil chinos, y en todo el país suman aproximadamente 14 mil chinos de ultramar y 40 mil mexicanos de origen chino, distribuidos principalmente en las ciudades de México, Tijuana, Mexicali y en el estado de Chiapas.
Los Que Llegaron — Japoneses
La migración japonesa a México comenzó a finales del siglo XIX, cuando Porfirio Díaz alentó la inmigración hacia los grandes e inaccesibles territorios del sureste mexicano. Durante los primeros años del siglo XX otro tipo de inmigrantes japoneses se establecieron en México: aquellos que venían contratados para trabajar en la construcción del ferrocarril, la industria minera y la cañera.
El estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial interrumpió el flujo de inmigrantes japoneses a México, y aquellos que vivían en el país fueron controlados y concentrados en la ciudad de México y Guadalajara. Al finalizar la guerra, los japoneses fueron liberados y muchos regresaron a sus antiguas labores con sus propiedades restituidas. Desde mediados de los años 50, más de 300 empresas niponas se han establecido con éxito en el país, y Japón se ha convertido en el tercer socio comercial de México.
En la actualidad, alrededor de 20 mil descendientes de japoneses viven en México, se les conoce como nikkeis, y son parte esencial de la economía, la cultura y la vida pública en México.
~ IMPORTANT PLEASE REBLOG ~
Aderonke’s family was killed and she was arrested, tortured, and sentenced to death in Nigeria for being a lesbian. She fled to safety in the UK.
She went through a humiliating interrogation by UK officials who didn’t believe she’s a lesbian. Aderonke’s waiting to hear from a judge who could decide to send her back to Nigeria – where she could be killed.
But there’s still a chance to help her. The UK Home Office just announced that the process they use for lesbian, gay, bi and trans asylum cases like this is degrading – but so far no changes have been made.
If thousands of us speak out right now, we can create a massive media story that could convince the Home Office to take the next logical step and halt the deportations. Will you sign the petition to Home Office Secretary Theresa May now?
Lupita Nyong’o is on the cover of People as the most beautiful person for 2014 in their annual “50 Most Beautiful” issue. This is the first time that anyone of her complexion has made the cover and she’s only the third Black woman to make the cover, other than Halle Berry (2003) and Beyoncé (2012).
She shared some insights on beauty in a behind the scenes video for the shoot for this cover. She made some really wonderful statements, some of which I included below:
The first person to tell me that I was beautiful was definitely my mother. She said that a lot, especially when I felt the least bit beautiful which is, you know, as an adolescent you go through times when you feel ugly in general. But my mother always said I was beautiful and I finally believed her at some point.
She’s regularly cited her mother as one of her main supporters in terms of fostering her self-esteem in her beauty, inside and out. She mentioned the importance of being content and I truly believe a part of her allure is her joy. It comes through in her every action and it’s beautiful where it just compliments her glorious dark skin, emotive hopeful eyes, adorable nose, incredible smile, and edges of the gawds, all on a remarkable symmetrical face.
I feel most beautiful when I am content. That for me is more important than my physical presentation because it’s through inner contentment and happiness that I care about my presentation.
In the behind the scenes video, she also mentioned the role of laughter in her adult life and this definitely connects to the previous quote in terms of internal contentment being the origin for feeling beautiful.
I think the older I get, the more I laugh. I think I’ve laughed a lot in ways; I wish I remembered to laugh like that when I was a teenager.
This made me think of the carefree Black girl conception that many Black women talk about and it made me happy to hear her discuss the role of laughter. An internal source of joy and confidence in appearance are radical acts for Black women in a society that regularly denies us joy and beauty. I am acutely aware of how people hate Black women and also want us to hate ourselves. This dehumanization isn’t just emotional and interpersonal but is a foundation on which oppressions such as misogynoir and colourism rest on. There are people invested—deeply in fact—in not only Lupita being invisible but that no one find her beautiful. They’re terrified that the status quo may shift even a little. And it wouldn’t be a complete shift. Lupita is still very well educated, from a Black immigrant middle class two-parent family and is thin in accordance with most Hollywood standards, so there are elements of privilege as well.
Even so, that beautiful dark skin on the cover will be a problem for many. There have been Black men heavily invested in making sure no one believes she’s beautiful. This isn’t completely about the cishet Black male gaze in a sexual context, though a factor, but also about how it shifts some cishet Black men’s worldview where they may have nothing but “at least” they aren’t Black women. If Black women are to be loathed, Black men can justify their misogynoir as simply being what everyone else feels about us, and it is what everyone else feels about us. Black men did not invent the hatred of Black women nor do they enact it alone. However, if Black women are not to be loathed and some are even deemed beautiful and valuable—even the ones who don’t meet every Eurocentric bullet point in terms of what “beauty” is—then it shifts the ground for many Black men whose choices and gaze are shaped by misogynoir that remains unchecked. This presents a conflict for them and some have lashed out because of it.
There’s also the issue of the White Gaze where even suggesting that a Black woman is beautiful upsets Whites who think that then means White women are being called “ugly.” They purposely ignore the structural power and privilege difference and even the exposure scale differences in the mainstream for White women versus Black women. When I wrote Yeah, Black Women Are Great. Fin., I made it clear that Black women need the space to celebrate our beauty (and not just aesthetically, though yes, that matters as well when our exterior and interior qualities are degraded on the hour) without the White supremacist notion that not reifying Eurocentric beauty standards at every moment means Black women are somehow “harming” White women or any non-Black women. (The latter can be anti-Black at times and placed “above” Black women, as non-Black women of colour, in terms of beauty, but placed “below” White women. Then there’s the intraracial manifestation of colourism where some light skinned Black women may also reject this cover or dark Black women being considered beautiful as well.)
I’m also aware of those among us Black people who think this cover is as simple as “White approval” yet do not understand how visibility as fully human and recognition matters in the mainstream even as Black people create our own media. This is not an “either/or” situation but a “both/and” one. Representation among the mainstream—as it shapes media, politics and culture, which means it has a great deal of power—is not the desire for interpersonal White favor. It’s the desire for the affirmation of humanity so that we are not punished for not being viewed as human. We may not need Whites’ “approval” of us in the mainstream but we most certainly cannot afford Whites’ dehumanization of us in the mainstream.
While I am not a fan of People and I most certainly don’t read it regularly, I’m also aware of what representation means. Lupita mentioned the importance of representation for Black girls, especially, in a previous speech at Essence Magazine’s 7th Annual Black Women In Hollywood luncheon:
And so I hope that my presence on your screens and in the magazines may lead you, young girl, on a similar journey. That you will feel the validation of your external beauty but also get to the deeper business of being beautiful inside. There is no shame in Black beauty.
Representation as human, as beautiful and as relevant matters for Black women, especially dark Black women (in this case; in other cases Black trans women, fat Black women etc.). Lupita can have this moment without the suggestion that it somehow “harms” Black men (as if their gaze has to matter to Black women at all times) or White women (as if they cannot love themselves unless Black women hate ourselves; well…hmm), without the suggestion that it means Black people no longer care about the media and content that we create ourselves (because let’s be crystal clear here, the mainstream pilfers Black creativity and culture anyway) or any other nonsensical or cruel suggestion meant to harm Black women that everyone was taught to hate. Lupita is clearly at a point of a great deal of self-love. A lot of Black women are. And we deserve to be.
I hope Lupita continues to thrive in her career (the acting one); I look forward to seeing her in any visual media (even as small as her Instagram). This People announcement as “Most Beautiful” made Lupita happy, as she tweeted, so I am (and many people are) happy for her. Congrats to Lupita Nyong’o.
Related Essay Compilation: On Beauty Politics
"You should kiss the ground you walk on if you were born in this country— take it from an old man who once had to wear the Star of David on his shirt. There’s a safety to living in such a diverse place. It’s much more difficult to brainwash a population that is composed of so many different nationalities and so many different viewpoints."
The United States military plans to end its combat role in Afghanistan later this year and close the chapter on America’s longest-running war, but the Afghan men being held at the US detention facility at Guantanamo Bay aren’t expected to see any changes.
Although the White House has long insisted that it will adhere to a December 2014 deadline to withdraw most of its troops after more than a decade of war, government officials past and current say the Guantanamo Bay detainees who call Afghanistan home likely won’t be returning anytime soon.
Out of all the experiences with racism I’ve faced as a young African American woman, there is one particular incident that still haunts my thoughts.
I was a freshman in high school. It was near the end of the year, so one of my teachers was allowing a relaxation day where we could work on extra credit worksheets while chatting with friends. A multicultural rally had just been held at our school a few days ago, and so I was cheerfully discussing some aspects of African American culture with my friend, when, out of nowhere, this Russian kid whom I’d shared very little contact the entire school year, turned in his desk and told me “you know, slavery was actually a good thing for you people”.
I was stunned. I was speechless. I had never encountered such ignorance in my life. And the scary part was he was dead serious.
If such a thing were to have had happened today, I definitely would have, for lack of a better phrase, “went off” on such an ignoramus, but at the time my fourteen year old self didn’t know how to respond to such overt anti-Blackness, so the only thing I could manage to say was “why do you say that?” which he answered “it brought you to America from Africa.” I didn’t say anything to him after that.
To this day, I still cannot believe that someone would be so ignorant, so racist, so anti-Black as to say that the kidnapping, enslavement, rape, dehumanization, and cultural/literal genocide of “you people” was a “good thing”.
To this day I still beat myself up for not having went off on that Russian kid. I shudder to think of how he will spread that anti-Black mentality to others.
Iris Yamaoka was born in 1911 (IMDb says 1910) in Seattle, Washington. She had small roles in six Hollywood films between 1929 and 1937. During World War II, she and her brother, Otto Yamaoka (also an actor) were sent to the Heart Mountain “Relocation” Camp in Cody, Wyoming. Neither performers returned to Hollywood post-WWII.
Iris passed away in New York City on November 28, 1960. Her brother, Otto passed away on June 5, 1967—also in New York City.